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Saddle - A projection our a spar to support another spar, as a saddle on the mast for the jaws of the boom to rest upon in coasters.

Sagging - Bending or curved downwards; the opposite of hogging. Sagging to leeward is to make a great deal of leeway.

Sail - The specifically designed cloth that catches or directs the wind and in doingso powers a vessel. Term also applied to a ship, or an assemblage of ships, as "We saw four sail off Ushant." (See "Sails.") Sailing Rig - the equipment used to sail a bost, including sails, booms and gaffs, lines and blocks.

Sail Coats or Sail Covers - Protective covers for sails when furled.

"Sail Her Along" - In close-hauled sailing, an order given to the helmsman when he is keeping the vessel too close to wind, meaning that he is to keep her a little off ; sail her fuller or harder or "give her the whole weight of it," meaning the wind, and keep her passing through the water as fast as possible.

Sail Her - When lying to if way has to be got on again, the order is to "Sail her"; or, "Let the head sheets draw and sail her !" Also "Sail her" is a general admonition to a helmsman to be very careful in his steering.

Sailing Directions - Books of pilotage which accompany charts.

Sailing Off The Hook - Using the force of the sail to break loose the anchor. Sailing from a weighed anchor position without benefit of auxilary engine or tugs.

Salt and Fresh Water - A cubic foot of salt water weighs 64lb.; a ton contains 34 cubic feet. A cubic foot of fresh water weighs 62.4lb.; a ton contains 36 cubic feet: hence salt water bulk for bulk will sustain a greater weight.

Scandalize - On a gaff rig the sail is made loose footed, the clew is brought forward along the boom and the sail cloth is drawn up in folds along the gaff and mast. From this position the sail is instantly available for use. To scandalize a Mainsail the peak is dropped downs between the topping lifts until square to the mast and the main tack triced up. Sometimes the throat is lowered also.

Scant - When the wind is very bare; when the wind comes so that a vessel will barely lie her course.

Scantlings -

The dimensions of all kinds of timber used in the construction of a vessel.

Scarph or Scarf, or Scarve - A method of joining pieces. of wood by tapering their ends. A box scarph is when the ends are not tapered, but a half thickness cut out of each part so that when put together the parts form only one thickness.

Schooner - Sailing ships with at least 2 masts (foremast and mainmast) with the mainmast being the taller. Word derives from the term "schoon/scoon" meaning to move smoothly and quickly. ( a 3-masted vessel is called a "tern"). See Addendum

Sciatic Stay - According to old authorities this is synonymous with Triatic stay, which see.

Scope - Technically, the ratio of length of anchor rode in use to the vertical distance from the bow of the vessel to the bottom of the water. Usually six to seven to one for calm weather and more scope in storm conditions. Length or drift of rope or cable.

Screw - A boat's propeller.

Score - A groove to receive a rope or strop,

Scowing an Anchor - When small boats have to anchor on ground known or suspected to befoul, it will always be prudent to scow the anchor. Unbend the cable from the ring, and make the end fast round the crown, shank, and flukes with a clove hitch, and bring the end a back and stop it round the cable with spun yarn or hitches; take the cable back to the shackle and stop it. When the cable is hauled upon by the fluke of the anchor can be readily lifted out of its bed. Sometimes, instead of scowing the anchor a trip line is bent to the crown and buoyed.

Screens - The wood shelves and screens painted red for port side, and green for starboard, in which a vessel's side lights are carried.

Scroll Head - The outward curved part of the knee at the upper fore part of the stem, called volute.

Scud - To run before a gale of wind with very little canvas set, or "under bare poles."

Scull - An oar. To scull is to propel a boat by working an oar over the centre of the transom on the principle of the screw. In fresh water, it is to pull a pair of sculls.

Scupper - Drain in cockpit, bulwarks, caming, or toe-rail allowing water to drain out and overboard.

Scuttle - A round window in the side or deck of a boat that may be opened to admit light and air, and closed tightly when required.

Seat Locker - A storage locker located under a cockpit seat.

Sea Cock - A through hull valve, a shut off on a plumbing or drain pipe between the vessel's interior and the sea.

Sea, A - A wave. A heavy seals when the waves are large and steep. When a quantity of water falls aboard a vessel it is said that "she shipped a sea."

Sea Anchor - A device used to slow down the leeward movement of a ship during heavy weather and/or to hold her steady in a relationship to wind and waves. A conical or parachute shaped open ended device attached to the ship by bridle and line.

Sea Boat - A vessel fit to go to sea. A good sea boat is a relative term, and means a vessel that does not pitch badly or labour in a sea, or does not ship much water, and is, above all things, handy in a sea.

Sea Mile or Nautical Mile - Variously 6076 or 6,080ft. (See "Knot.")

Sea Pie - A dish made up of all sorts in layers.

Sea Way - Generally used in the sense of waves in an open sea, meaning a disturbed sea.

Seam - The line formed by the meeting of two planks; overlapping parts of canvas in a sail.

Seaman - A sailor trained in the art of sailing, rigging, and general management of a ship.To make a good seaman a must have practised the multitudinous details of his art with great diligence, and is then described as an "able seaman" or A.B. Must be thoroughly conversant with every duty of a sailor's life, and can not only "hand, reef, and steer," but can do every kind of work upon rigging, and even use the needle and palm.

Seat locker - A storage locker located under a cockpit seat.

Self-bailing cockpit - A watertight cockpit with scuppers, drains, or bailers that remove water. Self-tacking Normally applied to a sail that requires no adjustment other than sheeting when boat is tacked

Seamanship - All the arts and skills of boat handling, ranging from maintenence and repairs to piloting, sail handling, marlinespike work, and rigging.

Sea Room - A safe distance from the shore or other hazards.

Seaworthy - A boat or a boat's gear able to meet the usual sea conditions. In every respect fit to go to sea. In chartering a ship it is insisted that she must be "tight, staunch and strong, and well equipped, manned with an adequate crew, provisions," &c.

Second Topsail - A gaff topsail between the largest and the jib-headed topsail.

Secure - To make fast.

Seizing - A way of securing a bight of a rope by a lashing so as to form an eye, or of securing any parts of ropes together.

Self-tacking - Normally applied to a sail that requires no adjustment other than sheeting when the boat is tacked.

Selvagee Strop - A strop made of spun yarn laid up in coils and marled.

Serve - To cover a rope with marline called "service."

Serving Mallet - The mallet which riggers use to wind service round ropes, stays and shrouds, and bind it up tightly together.

Set - Direction toward which the current is flowing.To hoist or make sail. This word is sometimes improperly confused with "sit" in reference to the way a sail stands.

Set Flying - Not set on a stay or bent by a lacing; a jib in a cutter is set flying.

Set of the Tide - Direction of the current.

Setting Up - Purchasing up rigging taut.

Sewed or Sued - The condition of a vessel that grounds and on the return of the tide is not floated. If the tide does not lift her by 2ft. she is said to be "sewed" 2ft. If the tide on falling does not leave her quite dry, she is said to "sew" 1ft., 2ft., 3ft., or more, as the case may be.

Shackle - A U-shaped crook with an eye in each end, through which a screw bolt is passed. Variously used, and are often preferred to hooks. (Fig. 93.) There is a shackle at every fifteen fathoms of cable, so that by unshackling it the cable can be divided into many parts. Useful if the cable has to be slipped.

Shake Out a Reef - To untie the reef points and unroll a reef and hoist away.

Shake, To - To sail a vessel so close to wind that the weather cloths of the sails shake; the bead sails generally are the first to shake, and if the helmsman does not notice it someone who does sings out, "All shaking forward"; or "Near forward."

Shake Up - "Give her a shake up." This is an order to put down the helm and cause the vessel to luff until her sails are "all shaking." The practice is to give a vessel a shake up and thus ease the weight on the sheets and enable the crew to get them in and belay before she again feels the weight.

Shallow Bodied - With a very limited depth of hold.

Shape a Course - To steer a particular course.

Sharp Bottomed or Sharp Floored - A vessel with V-shaped sections.

Sharp Bowed - With a very fine entrance or a bow whose two sides form a very acute angle.

Sharp Sterned - A stern shaped something like the fore end or bow, thus <.

Sheave - The wheel within a block or in the sheave hole of a spar over which ropes pass.

Sheepshank - A plan of shortening a rope by taking up a part and folding it into two loops or bights, and then putting a half hitch of each standing part over a bight

Sheer - The line of the upper deck when viewed from the side. Normal sheer curves up towards the bow and stern. Reverse sheer curves down towards the bow and stern. Compound sheer, curving up at the front of the boat and down at the stern, and straight sheer are uncommon. Or -The fore-and-aft vertical curve of a vessel's deck or rail of bulwarks. To sheer is to put the rudder over when a vessel is at anchor, so as to cause her to move laterally and ride clear of her anchor. A vessel is said to break her sheer when she departs from the sheer that has been given her. Also To move through the water after the means of propulsion is withdrawn.

Sheer Hulk - An old vessel fitted with sheers, whereby masts are lifted into other vessels. Sometimes used in the sense that nothing but the hulk remains.

Sheer Legs - Two spars fitted with guys for lifting masts or other things.

Sheer Plan or Sheer Draught - A drawing showing a longitudinal vertical section or profile of a vessel.

Sheer Strake - The topmost planking in the sides, often thicker than other planking.

Sheets - Lines used to control and secure the position of a sail and are attached to the lower aft corner .

Sheet - A rope or chain by which the lower after corners of sails are secured.

Sheet Bends - A knot used to fasten a line to the corner of a sail or tarpaulin.

Sheet Home - To strain or haul on a sheet until the foot of a sail is as straight or taut as it can be got. When the clew of a gaff topsail is hauled close out to the cheek block on the gaff. In practice, a gaff topsail sheet, however, is seldom sheeted home, as when once home no further strain could be brought on it; a few inches drift is therefore usually allowed. In square-rigged vessels a sail is said to be sheeted home when the after clews are hauled close out to the sheet blocks or sheave holes in the yard. This no doubt is the origin of the term.

Shelf - A strong piece of timber running the whole length of the vessel inside the timber beads, binding the timbers together; the deck beams rest on and are fastened to the shelf.

Shifting Backstays - The topmast backstays which are only temporarily set up and shifted every time a vessel is put about or gybed.

Shifting Ballast - Ballast carried for shifting to windward to add to stiffness. A practice forbidden in yacht racing.

Shifting her Berth - When a vessel removes from an anchorage.

Shift of Plank - The fore and aft distance between the butts of one line of plank and that of the next below or above.

Shift Tacks, To - To go from one tack to the other.

Shift the Helm - To move the tiller from one side to the other; thus, if it is put to port, an order to shift the helm means put it to starboard.

Shin Up - To climb up the shrouds by the hands and shins, when they are not rattled down.

Ship, To - To put anything in position. To engage as one of the crew of a vessel. To ship a sea, to ship a crutch, to ship a seaman

Shrouds - Lateral supports for the mast, usually of wire or metal rod.

Ship - A larger vessel usually thought of as being used for ocean travel. A vessel able to carry a "boat" on board.

Ship Shape - Done in a proper and unimpeachable manner.

Ship Shape and Bristol Fashion. - An expression probably originating in days gone by when Bristol shipbuilders and seamen were in great repute.

Ship's Papers - These include builders' certificate, register (in case of not being the original owner, bill of sale as well), hill of lading, bill of health, special licenses such as for the radios,documentation or registration with government, also insurance papers, crew list, de-rat certificate, entry and exit permits from various previous ports of call. Crew licenses, passports and Vaccination Records are not ship's papers but need to be gathered together when undergoing formal entry procedures.

Shiver - To luff up and cause the sails to shiver or lift.

Shiver The Mizzen - To luff up until the mizxen lifts or shivers.

Shoe or Shod - Iron plates rivetted to the ends of wire rigging to receive shackle bolts.

Shore - A beach. A support of wood or iron, a prop.

Short Tacks or Short Beards - Beating or working to windward by frequent tacking.

Shorten - The wind is said to shorten when it comes more ahead. To shorten sail, to take in sail.

Shroud - a line or wire running from the top of the mast to the spreaders, then attatching to the side of the vessel.

Shy - The wind is said to shy when it comes from ahead or breaks a vessel off.

Side Kelsons - Stout pieces of timber fitted fore and aft on either side of the keel.

Side Lights - The red (port) and green (starboard) lights carried by vessels when under way.

Siding or Sided - The size of a timber, between its two planes and parallel sides.

Sight the Anchor - To heave up the anchor.

Signal of Distress - An ensign hoisted upside down.

Sister Block - A double block with two sheaves of the same size one above the other, and seized to the topmast shrouds of square rigged ships to receive the lifts and reef tackle pendants.

Sit - Sails are said to "sit" well when they do not girt, pucker, belly, or shake. This word is sometimes wrongly written "set."

Skeg -For sailboats, usually refers to a structural support to which the rudder is fastened.

Skids -

Pieces of timber put under a boat for resting her on deck, or when launching off.

Skiff - A small boat used by coast watermen for the conveyance of passengers.

Skin - The outside or inside planking of a vessel.

Skinning - In stowing a mainsail lifting the outside part up time after time, the bunt forming a kind of bag. This should never be allowed, as it ruins the sail.

Skin Resistance - The resistance a vessel meets with owing to the friction of the water on her plank or sheathing.

Skipper - A slang term for the master of a yacht or other vessel. Ancient, "Schipper."

Skysail - A square sail set above the royals.

Sky Scraper - A triangular sail set above the skysail. Never used now.

Sky Pilot - A term applied by sailors to chaplains.

Slab Line - A rope used to brail up the foot of courses.

Slab Reefing - Also points reefing, and sometimes jiffy reefing. Reduces the area of the mainsail by partially lowering the sail and resecuring the new foot by tying with points, or light lines attached to the sail. The ties should be around just the bundled sail material except at the ends of the boom unless a bolt rope and groove system is used. In any case the intermediate ties should be loose enough to place a clenched fist between them and the sail material.

Slack - Not fastened; loose. Also, to loosen. Not taut. To slack up a rope or fall of a tackle is to ease it.

Slack Helm - When a vessel carries very little, if any, weather helm.

Slack in Stays - Slow in coming head to wind, and still slower in paying off.

Slack Tide - The tide between the two streams when it runs neither one way nor the other. There are high-water slack and low-water slack.

Slant of Wind - A favouring wind. A wind that frees a vessel when close-hauled.

Sleep, or All Asleep - When the sails are full and do not flap or shiver.

Sliding Keel - An old term for a keel which was lifted at the ends in contradistinction a pivoted board.

Slings - Ropes or strops used to support or sling yards.

Slip - To let go, as to slip the cable.

Sloop - A fore-and-aft rigged single masted vessel with one head sail set on a forestay.

Slot - An aperture generally for a pin or bolt to travel in.

Smack - A small trading vessel usually cutter rigged. A fishing cutter.

Small Helm - Said of a vessel when she carries weather helm.

Small Stuff - A term applied in the dockyards to denote planking of 4in. thickness and under.

Snatch Block - A block with an opening in the shell so that a rope can be put over the sheave without reeving it. (See Fig. 98.)

Sneak Box - A shallow and beamy boat developed on Barnegat Bay in the US

Snotter - A double-eyed strop used to support the heel of a sprit on the mast.

Snow - A two-masted vessel with a stay, termed a horse, from the mainmast head to the deck on which a trysail was set. Frequently a spar was fitted instead of the stay.

Snub - To bring a vessel up suddenly when she has way on and only a short range of cable to veer out. Sometimes necessary if the vessel must be stopped at all costs, but a practice likely to break the fluke of an anchor if it is a good and quick holder.

Snug - Comfortably canvassed to suit the weather. Anything made neat, or stowed compactly.

So! - An order to cease, often given instead of "belay" when men are hauling on a rope.

Soldiers' Wind - A wind so that a vessel can lie her course all through to her destination without tacking or any display of seamanship.

Sole - The floor of the cockpit or cabin.

Sooji - A composition of caustic soda and quicklime for cleaning off old paint, varnish, oil, grease and a good deal of skin.

Sound - Not decayed or rotten; free of shakes, splits, crushings

Sounding - A measurement of the depth of water.

Soundings - To be near enough to land for the deep sea lead to find a bottom. A series of depth measurements

Spales or Spauls - Cross shores used to keep the frame of a vessel in position whilst building.

Span - A rope made fast by both ends to a spar or stay, usually for the purpose of hooking a tackle. Very long spans are now commonly fitted to gaffs for hooking the peak halyards.

Spanish Burton - A purchase composed of three single blocks. A double Spanish Burton consists of one double and two single blocks.

Spanish Reef - A knot tied in the head of a jib or other head sail to shorten the hoist or reduce the area of the sail.

Spanker - The fore-and-aft sail set with boom and gaff on the mizen of a square-rigged ship; termed also the driver.

Span Shackle - A bolt with a triangular shackle. The gammon iron that encircles the bowsprit at the stem. When it is directly over the stem the forestay is shackled to it.

Spar - a pole or a beam.

Spar Poles - most often of wood, aluminum or carbon fiber, used as supports, such as the mast, boom, or spinnaker pole.

Spectacle Strop - A short strop with an eye at each end.

Spell - The term of work allotted to any of the men in a watch. Thus there is the spell at the helm termed "trick"; spell at the masthead to look out, spell at the pomp, &c. When a man's time comes to be relieved and the one who has to take his place lags, the former sings out "Spell !"

Spencer - A fore-and-aft sail set with gaffs in square-rigged ships, as trysails on the fore and main mast.

Spider-Hoop or Spider Band - An iron band round the mast with iron belaying pins in it.

Spiling - Marking on a bar of wood the distances that a curved line (say that of a frame) is from a straight line.

Spilling Lines - Ropes attached to sails for spilling them of wind in reefing or furling.

Spindle Jib - A jib topsail.

Spindrif, Spoon Drift - Spray blown from the crests of waves.

Spinnaker - A large, triangular sail symmetrical, flown from the mast in front of all other sails and the forestay. Requires the use of a spinnaker pole and guys. Used sailing downwind. When asymmetrical is termed a cruising chute or spinnaker and does not require a pole.

Spirit - The spar that supports the peak of a spritsail. Splashboard A raised portion of the hull forward of the cockpit intended to prevent water entering.

Spirketting - Timber worked inside a vessel under the shelf in a fore-and-aft direction.

Spitfire - The smallest storm jib.

Splashboard - A raised portion of the hull forward of the cockpit intended to prevent water entering.

Splice - To join the ends of rope together by interweaving the untwisted strands. May be a Short Splice, Long Splice, End Splice or Eye Splice.

Split Lug - A lugsail in two parts; the fore part is sheeted like a foresail, and in going about the tack is never cast off, nor is the tack of the after part of the sail. The up and down lines on the sail show where it is divided and where the mast comes. To heave to, the slew (after cringle) of the fore part of the log would be hauled up to the mat or to windward of it, easing the mainsheet as required. The split lug is not in much favour. The standing lug (or even balance lug) and foresail rig has all the advantages of the split lug without so much yard forward of the mast and without the disadvantage of not being able to lower the fore part or foresail. The most that can be said in favour of the split lug is that it points out the advantages of a main and foresail in preference to one sail.

Spoken - Said when one ship has spoken to another by signal.

Spokes - The bars of the steering wheel of a ship radiating from the boss. "To give her a spoke" is to move the wheel to the extent of the distance between spoke and spoke. The longest spoke is termed the King Spoke and when directly upright with an equal number of turns available port or starboard denotes when the rudder is amidships.

Sponson - The platform ahead and abaft paddle wheels, usually outside the bulwarks, but sometimes enclosed.

Spreaders - A crosstree, a strut, a piece of wood or steel used to extend and give breadth and leverage to a stay such as the bobstay, topmast stay, masthead stay, or forward mast head stay or strut.stay. The cross trees act as a spreader to the topmast and masthead stays, the dolphin striker to the bobstay and the strut to the forward masthead or strut-stay.

Spring - A warp or hawser or rope.

Spring a Mast - To crack or splinter a mast.

Spring her Luff - To ease the weather tiller lines so that a vessel will luff to a free puff.

Spring Line - A pivot line used in docking, undocking, or to prevent the boat from moving forward or astern while made fast to a dock.

Spritsail - A four-sided fore and aft sail set on the mast, and supported by a spar from the mast diagonally to the peak of the sail.This is a time-honoured contrivance for setting a sail that has no boom, but a gaff is preferred if the sail has a boom.

Sprung - Damaged by by cracking or splintering.

Spun Yarn - Small rope or cord used for serving.

Squall - A sudden, violent wind often accompanied by rain.

Square Knot - A knot used to join two lines of similar size. Also called a reef knot.

Square - Said of sails when they are trimmed at right angles to the keel. A ship is said to have square yards when there is little difference between the lengths of upper and lower yards, or when her yards are very long.

Square the Yards - To brace them across at right angles to the keel. Square the boom is to haul it out at right angles to the keel.

Square Topsail Schooner - a combination of fore and aft sails and small square sails. They were popular for coastal trading in the early 1800s. Prince Edward Island built a number of topsail schooners and many were sold in Great Britian. A version with raked masts, called the Baltimore Clipper, was much favoured by privateersmen in the War of 1812.

Squeeze - A vessel is said to be squeezed when she is sailed very close to the wind in order that she may weather some point or object.

Stains on Deck - Iron moulds, can be removed from a deck by a solution of one part muriatic acid, three parts water.

Stand - A term variously employed; as to stand towards the shore, to stand E.S.E., and so on; to stand on without tacking. A sail is said to stand when it does not lift or shake.

Standard - See "Royal Standard."

Stand By - The order to make ready ; as "Stand by to lower the topsail!" "Let go the anchor!"

Standing Part - The part permanently made fast to something, and not hauled upon. In cordage or lines it's the standing end is the opposite of the running end. The main part of a line as distinguished from the bight and the end.

Standing rigging - Permanent rigging used to support the spars. May be adjusted during racing, in some classes.

Stand-On Vessel - That vessel which has right-of-way during a meeting, crossing, or overtaking situation.

Stand Up- A vessel is said to stand up well that carries her canvas without heeling much.

Starboard - The right hand side. The opposite to port. From the ancient "steerboard" a rudder like device placed off the starboard or right-side quarter. It is said the ships were moored left side to the quay or dock to protect the steering device thus port side.

Starbolins - The men and "watches" who compose the starboard watch.

Start, To - To move, as to slacken a sheet or tack. To start a butt is to cause a plank to start from its fastenings at its butt or end.

Started neither Tack nor Sheet - Said when a vessel sails a long course without a shift of wind, so that there is no occasion for her to alter the trim of her sails.

Starved of Wind - When a vessel is sailed so near the wind that she does not have enough of it, or feel the weight of it.

Slay, To - To tack (older term)

Stays - a line or wire from the mast to the bow or stern of a ship, for support of the mast (fore, back, running, and triadic stays). A vessel is said to be in stays when she is going through the operation of tacking. To stay is to tack. Strictly, when a ship is head to wind. Probably derived from the fact that a square rigged ship "stays" a long time before her bead pays off, and she is than "in stays."

Staysail - A sail that is set on a stay, and not on a yard or a mast.

Stay Rope - The luff or weather bolt rope of a jib or other sail.

Steady! - An order to put the helm amidships, or not to move it about.

Steady As She Goes! - The command to maintain the last course correction given.

Steerage - In a yacht the space between the after athwartship bulkhead of the main cabin and the athwartship bulkhead of the after cabin. (The latter is generally known as the ladies' cabin. Usually the term steerage is limited to the fore and aft passage and berths therein.

Steerage Way - When a vessel moves through the water so that she can be steered. In simply drifting or moving with the tide a vessel has no steerage way on, and cannot be steered; therefore steerage way means that a vessel relatively to the water moves and passes the water.

Steersman - A helmsman.

Steeve - The upward inclination or rake which a bowsprit has, or which the plank sheer has forward. The running bowsprit has usually a steeve corresponding with the sheer forward; a standing bowsprit has generally considerably more on square rigged vessels.

Stem - The most forward vertical structural member in the bow.

Stemson - A piece of timber worked inside the stem.

Step - A piece of timber or metal to receive a vessel's mast. To step is to put a thing into its step.

Stern - The after part of the boat. The timber at the fore end of a vessel into which the ends of the plank are butted. To stem is to make headway, as against a current.

Stern-board - The name given to the three-cornered board aft in an open boat.

Stern Board - A movement of a vessel sternwards.

Stern Line - A docking line leading from the stern.

Stern Post - The strong timber to which the rudder is hung.

Stern Sheets - The seat in the aft end of a boat. Sometimes the three-cornered bottom board aft in a boat is termed the stern sheet. This board in' a yachts gig, in the bow or aft, is usually a wood grating. In small fishing boats the stern sheet is the platform on which the fisherman coils away his nets, lines

Stern Way - Moving astern: to make a stern board.

Stiff - Not easily healed; having great stability.

Stock of an Anchor - The crossbar near the shackle.

Stocks - The framework upon which a vessel rests whilst she is being built.

Stooping - To dive into a wave hollow. Generally an easy sort of pitching, caused by the undulation of waves or "swell."

Stopper - A rope or lashing used to prevent a rope or chain surging or slipping, as cable stopper, rigging stoppers. The latter is usually a short piece of rope put on as a kind of racking to prevent the rigging or its tackles rendering.

Stops - Yarns or short pieces of rope by which sails are secured when rolled up or stowed. Also the short lines by which sails are tied to yards when they are not laced.

Storm Anchor - An anchor of exceptionally heavy weight used to hold a boat or ship during heavy weather. A Sea or Floating Anchor when in deep water. See "Oil on Troubled Waters" in the Addendum

Storm Sails - The storm trysail and storm jib set in bad weather.

Stove in - Broken in.

Stow - To put an item in its proper place. To roll up. To furl a sail. . A slang term telling a man to cease talking, as "Stow that."

Straight of Breadth - The distance where the breadth of a ship is equal or nearly equal amidships; now generally termed parallel length of middle body, because the two sides of a ship may be for some distance parallel to each other. A straight of breadth is seldom found in a yacht excepting in some long steam yachts ; these frequently are of the same breadth for some distance amid. ships.

Strain, To Take a or To Take An Even - Laying hold of the line and applying enough pressure to remove all slack prepratory to hauling. "Take An Even Strain" is an admonish to calm down.

Strake - On wooden boats, a line of planking running from the bow to the stern along the hull.Strake - On wooden boats, a line of planking running from the bow to the stern along the hull.

Strand - Yarns twisted together and they then make the parts or strands of a rope.

Strands - Yarns when unlaid and used as "stops" are sometimes called strands.

Stranded - Said of a rope when one or more of its strands have burst. Cast ashore normally by accident or mishap as opposed to maroon which is to beset ashore on purpose.

Strap - See "Strop."

Stream - The direction of the flood tide and ebb tide. The tides in the Channel are usually referred to as the eastern stream for the flood and western stream for the ebb.

Stretch - A course sailed. Also the elasticity of canvas or line.

Strike - To lower, as to strike the topmast. Also to strike the ground when sailing.

Striking Topsails - First step in reducing sail. Also a form of saluting.

Stringers - Strengthening strakes of plank, steel, or iron inside or outside a vessel's frame.

Strop or Strap - A sort of hoop made of rope yarn, wire, or metal, used to put round spars, blocks

Stroke or Streak - A length of plank of any breadth. The lead rower in a ship's boat that sets the pace for the others. Is seated on the aft thwart so the movements can be followed by the other crew who are facing the stern.

Strut - A single spreader. A piece of wood or steel fitted on the foreside of the mast opposite the gaff jaws for the purpose of giving spread to a steel wire stay which supports the masthead, the "strut-stay" being the wire that goes from the masthead through or over the "strut" opposite the gaff jaws and down to the deck at the base of the mast to take the backward strain of the masthead and counteract the forward thrust of the gaff.

Studding Sails - Sails set outside the courses and topsails in square rigged ships; called by sailors "stu'n's'ls."

Stuff - Small rope, and picked hemp or cotton waste, and timber. Also old slang for sails as, "Give her the stuff," meaning more sail.

Surge - When a rope renders round a belaying pin.

Swamp - To fill with water, but not settle to the bottom.

Sweat And Tail - Sweat is the act of hauling a halyard to raise a sail or spar done by pulling all slack outward and then downward. Tail is controlling the runnning end of the halyard by coiling.

Swell - Long waves with unbroken crest:, usually met with after heavy winds have subsided.

Sweep - A long bend. To sweep is to impel by sweeps or large oars; formerly, vessels as large as 300 tons used sweeps, and by hard work could make three knots an hour. Sweeps are not permitted in yacht racing.

Sweeps - Large oars.

Swig, To - The fall of a tackle is put under a cleat or pin, and is held firmly by one or more of the crew; another man (or man) then takes hold of the part of the fall between the cleat and the block and throws his whole weight on it; as he comes up the other hand takes in the slack. By swigging on a tackle a couple of hands can often get in all that is required, where by steady hauling they might not have moved the blocks an inch. To drink.

Swivel Hook - A hook that revolves by a pivot inserted in a socket and clinched.

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